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F1 Technical -- for us dummies

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

Hybrid is a definition bandied about with increasing regularity in motorsport circles, but just what is a hybrid? The dictionary defines the word as meaning "a thing made by combining two different elements"… could it be any more vague? In motor racing terms, it means a car has more than one source of power, most commonly an electric motor as well as the normal petrol or diesel engine. Hybrids are often seen as 'green' technology aimed at increasing fuel efficiency, but some hybrids are all about improving performance and most of the current systems can do both.

Despite common belief a hybrid does not always have an electric motor, indeed the most environmentally friendly systems are purely mechanical ones such as the one used on the Dyson Lola-Mazda. The system is developed by Flybrid, an English company based at Silverstone and originally founded to develop a kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) for the Honda Formula 1 team. It's name perfectly describes what it does FLYwheel hyBRID.

When Max Moseley announced that from 2009 Formula 1 teams could use hybrid systems (which have since become known as KERS) a senior engineer at a F1 team took note. He set out to study every possible solution to creating a functional racing hybrid system, he soon found the idea to focus on and he left the team to start his own company.

“We even looked at a knotted rubber band from the nose of the car to the tail,' laughs John Hilton Flybrid's founder. “It's rubbish but we looked at it. It took about 15 minutes to work out it was hopeless but we looked at everything.” Eventually he decided that the most promising technology was a flywheel-based system.

Over the years the system he developed has evolved from the first concept developed for Formula 1, to a bespoke Le Mans Prototype version dubbed the Flybrid CFT.

Hybrid technology is all about very basic Newtonian physics. It all sounds very complicated but it really isn't. The basic physics of hybrid technology is laid down in lessons taught to almost every secondary school child in the developed world. It is all based around the fact that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be endlessly converted.

When you drive down the road your car has kinetic energy, when you brake that kinetic energy is mostly converted into heat energy (why is why fast cars need to keep the brakes cool). In most cars that heat energy is wasted, but in a hybrid that is not the case. When the driver brakes, most of the kinetic energy (or rotational force) is still converted to heat energy but a portion is treated differently and is stored up in the car. When the driver demands a power boost that stored energy is converted back into kinetic energy.

In the case of the Flybrid system, when the brakes are applied the energy is used to spin up a flywheel which is made from carbon filament wrapped round a steel hub and weighs 5kg. The energy (up to 100kW) is stored in the rapidly rotating flywheel until the time it is required by the driver. It is then fed back into the transmission (and on to the rear wheels) via a series of small clutches.

This system has some key advantages over electronic systems: it is much lighter, with no need for additional motors or inverters. Toyota's electronic THS-R LMP1 hybrid system is thought to weigh around 80kg whilst the Flybrid system is around a quarter of that.  

It is also much cheaper than electronic systems with no environmentally and financially expensive batteries and motors. Not having those components also reduces the cooling demand significantly, which in turn can reduce the aerodynamic drag on the car (compared to an identical car running an electronic hybrid).  

Finally the Flybrid system is very easy to integrate. All of the Lola P1 cars were designed to have the Flybrid system installed as and when teams decide, and it has also been run in an ORECA 01.

Hang on I hear you cry… what about Audi? They have a flywheel based hybrid system too. What is so different about what Dyson is doing?

Well the system used by Audi in the R18 e-tron Quattro is an electro-mechanical system, whilst Dyson uses the purely mechanical Flybrid system. In the Audi when the brakes are applied, an electric motor converts the kinetic energy to electrical energy, which is then passed to an electro-magnetic flywheel, which is spun up using the electricity generated by the braking. It then uses that energy for additional acceleration via the front wheels by slowing down the flywheel and converting the kinetic energy in the flywheel back into electricity. That electricity is then used to power the electric motor at the front of the R18. There is no mechanical link between the flywheel and the wheels on the Audi, whilst with Dyson there is only a mechanical link.

The mechanical hybrid system has real relevance beyond motorsport, and today Hilton and his ever-growing team at Flybrid spend most of their time looking at other applications. For example on the London Underground temperatures can soar to over 40 degrees centigrade. Most of this heat comes from the electric motors on the trains, so reducing the work those motors have to do would reduce the temperatures on the trains. Flybrid's hybrid system could easily be fitted to the trains and could reduce the load on the engines with ease and low cost.

It’s not the only way the technology could be applied. Some car companies like Jaguar have already been testing the Flybrid system for mass production road cars.

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

This is cool!

An Thermal Camera on the Car of Paul di Resta during the 2nd practice in Monza.

It's amazing how quickly tyres temperatures go up and down through the corners.

Would love to see what a decent lock up of the front wheels looks like on the thermal camera.

 

The thermal camera images that were shown during free practice on television today provide interesting data on the temperatures that the tyres go through at this high-speed track. When the tyres come out of the blankets, their temperature is around 80-90 degrees Celsius. During a lap, the tyres will heat up to a surface temperature of around 130 degrees out of La Roggia whereas it will go down to as low as 80 degrees before entering La Roggia. The second highest sector in regards to temperature is the long and fast Parabolica (125 degrees), followed by Ascari (120 degrees). Under heavy braking or lock-ups, the temperatures can reach higher but this won't last longer than a few seconds - Paul Hembery

 

 

 

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

Exslusive Q&A with Renault engine chief Rob White about 2014 powertrains. Interesting stuff. AMuS (in German):

 

I have used Google Translate to translate it but Im sure you will get the idea. (its a bit long but worth the read ... well to me anyway lol)

 

................................................

 

How much quieter the new engines are compared to the current V8?
RW: I have no number in decibels. The intensity of the sound will be smaller, character differently. I am confident that you will love the sound. There are still high-revving , high performance engines . The acceleration of the eight courses (gears) will be exceptionally impressive. If she Start an engine test bench , you want to close the door. He's so right noise.

Will we see the spectacular Turbo fire on the exhaust even with the new engines ?
White: Yes , we will. Not as often and not so great , but they will come out to see flames from the exhaust. The rules force us to save gasoline. We need each fuel molecule to optimally implement it into energy and can not waste anything. The result is that we do not carry unnecessarily unburned gasoline in the exhaust. But when the load changes that will sometimes be inevitable. In the old days, the turbo engines were either unlimited or they were controlled by the boost pressure . This has limited the air that has been compressed in the combustion chambers . The fuel was injected to get the maximum energy from a limited amount of air . It was almost always brought too much fuel into the combustion chambers . Part of it came unburned into the exhaust tract and has provided this beautiful turbo flame.

How much (horsepower) are the new engines . There are rumors 700-850 hp ?
White: The pure combustion engine will make about 600 hp. The electric motors are controlled to 120 kilowatts . So 160 hp. So we come to around 760 hp. This is in the region of the current engines. Forgive me if I can not give you precise values ​​. I would first of all look at the number 760 as a guideline .

How big is the delta of the power between training and racing conditions will be?
White: I do not necessarily relate to qualifying and race this delta . In qualifying we approached with maximum power . In the race, but that can happen in some cases . Of course, not over the entire distance , because we have only 100 kg fuel for a race available. The same goes for the electric motor. We must always keep the batteries during the race in a certain state of charge. In qualifying we can get this energy in a round. That would not be advisable in the race. Therefore, the delta must be for maximum power and economy mode relate .

Is it true that the torque is doubled ?
White: I want to remind you that we will return next year with eight-speed transmissions. One must see the power in relation to the gear ratio. The shape of the power curve will be flatter and wider than today . Yes, there will be periods , since the torque is at a comparable rate significantly higher than today , but not in the proportions that you have just described.

There are eight courses (gears) in 2014 , but only a translation. The cars will then be translated incorrectly in Monte Carlo and Monza ?
White: I expect that the driver in Monte Carlo will waive (not use) the eighth gear and at Monza on the (not use) first gear. The smallest and largest gear will be designed to fit for these two extreme racetracks. Everything in between is matched to the power curve of the engine . With the result that the speed jumps between gears are smaller than today. I therefore do not expect any major problems .

Will there be routes (tracks) where it is difficult to fully charge the batteries in a round (lap) ? Silverstone for example.
White: There will be stretches where there is not enough braking zones to store the allowed two megajoules per rounds (lap) of pure kinetic energy. But we can save energy from the thermal expansion also still .

Would be made ​​also allowed to use a flywheel rather than batteries or an air compressor as a storage medium ?
White: It would be allowed . But I doubt that anyone makes such a thing . Trust that stuck 2014 batteries in each car on the grid. The energy management system is so complicated that batteries offer the best conditions for this.

With only five engines per driver per season: How long an engine must last at least ?
White : 3.600 kilometers. And that applies not only to the engine. For the turbo , the batteries , electronics, the generators. This is no easy task. Since they must try always to drive the turbocharger to its upper temperature limit , it does not take much of what must be going wrong to make him off .

 

......................................

A question was asked

What is it, when the 5 allowable turbocharger should be consumed?
Must then continue as a sucker?

No, for each Replaced part of the drive unit, there is a disciplinary transfer on the grid.

- 6 Turbochargers = 5 starting positions to the rear
- 6 Turbocharger + example 6 Motor = 10 grid positions penalty
- 6 complete drive unit (motor, turbo, (K) ERS) = 20 places that punishment

Edited by Viva Alonso

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

How to make a F1 car - Design and R&D

 

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Edited by Viva Alonso

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Guest DennisL   
Guest DennisL

Right, a question here from Dummy Deluxe:  How come Hulk was able to generate so much more pace than Lewis on the corner exits? It was remarkable! No matter what Lewis used, or did, he just could not do anything about that huge difference in performance. He even asked, "Any suggestions?" 

I got lost with the attempt at explaining by the commentators. [i suspect they were also fishing around a bit]

Thanks

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

Very valid question Dennis.

 

From what  could gather it is twofold, they tyre changes helped them and also (I think this was biggest contributor) is they have changed the rear end of their car, I read somewhere (will try and find article) they also now have a Coanda Exhuast system similiar to RBR exhuast, sealing the Diffuser and creating extra down force..

 

..........................

 

This was posted 17/07

The Sauber C32 emerged out on track today at the Silverstone Young Driver Test with new bodywork, featuring a brand new downwash exhaust layout. The new sidepod and exhaust design relies on the same principles as the designs used by Red Bull Racing and Lotus F1. Just like with Sauber now, the sidepods slope down quickly and rely on this downward airflow to help push the exhaust flow down onto the car's floor. Additionally, small tunnels are built in the sidepod, underneath the exhaust outlet and just above the car's floor to allow air to pass to the centre of the car where it is blown out onto the diffuser centreline where a small opening in the diffuser can be used to generate more downforce.

The design change is surprising for Sauber, as it was essentially the Swiss team that pioneered the downwash exhaust layout. In fact it was the only team that though of such a design in the winter ahead of the 2012 season. When the Sauber C31 emerged impressive during winter testing, Red Bull Racing's CTO was quoted as being the most impressed by the Sauber. He was so keen on the design that the team started work on their own version, which turned the team's struggling Red Bull RB8 into a championship winning machine. Newey however crucially though about the tunnels to feed the diffuser with more air, something that Sauber failed to materialise.

In fact, Sauber believed during 2011 that McLaren's exhaust layout was a better option. The C31 was repeatedly tested with a layout similar to McLaren, but the lack of testing meant the team opted to end the 2012 season with the downwash layout. This year's C32 then debuted with a design similar to McLaren, albeit with narrow and higher sidepods.

The team finally seemed to have settled with their design, until today's unveiling of the new design, for the first time featuring a layout including ducts underneath the exhaust exits. The design was however only run briefly, as soon the bodywork started to show severe burning marks. The burning marks, which appear to be more severe than what the team experienced earlier this year in winter testing, suggests however that more development work will be needed to make this race ready.

Edited by Viva Alonso

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

The new engine regulations for 2014 have been designed to discourage teams from producing “extreme engines” and employing “exotic strategies”, according to the FIA.

F1′s governing body intends to make energy efficiency a priority for the teams in designing their new cars and engines and will limit each driver to using no more then 100kg of fuel per race next year.

 

The current V8 engines are subject to a development freeze and a similar policy will be gradually introduced for the new engines to prevent development costs getting out of control

 

The FIA’s plan for freezing development of the engines calls for

8% of power unit components by weight to be frozen in development by 2015.

That will rise to 23% in 2016, 35% in 2018 and 95% the year after that.

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

KERS units will be twice as powerful and deliver ten times the current performance.

 

With the introduction of the new 1.6lt V6 Turbo engines next year one of the reasons for the change was to reduce fuel consumption levels. The lack of power of the new power plants will be partly compensated by the introduction of more powerful KERS unit, with an increase in performance ten times that of the current units.

 

It will play a much bigger part in overall performance in 2014. KERS is currently limited to 60kW power, using 400kJ of energy per lap. The numbers for next year are 120kW, twice as much power, but up to 4,000kJ made available.

It will increase KERS performance much more than the 60kW for a few seconds a lap used in 2013. In 2014 we're talking about twice as much power for much, much longer.

 

Redbull have always struggled with their KERS and this could be an issue for them next year and give other teams an advantage. It’s widely accepted that Renault has the best engine. RBR problem with the KERS is related to the positioning of it and also battery packs. RBR's KERS has 2 batteries that are separated and are located on the sides of gearbox, also it is close to the exhaust pipes. It has inferior cooling to the other cars, that's why it sometimes has problems. Other cars have battery alongside the fuel cell. Due to this RBR has a better rear package but suffers from KERS issues.

 

KERS next year will not be button-activated and given the big percentage of power it contributes, any failure will most likely lead to retirement. The KERS system will be part of the power-train package which means if 1 manufacturer struggles with its KERS all the teams they supply will also struggle.

 

With single exit exhaust introduced next year, blown diffusers will be a thing of the past and without exhaust tricks, maybe teams will focus more on the drive-train and a little less on aerodynamics. It will be really important to have it working next year.

 

For once it appears there would be a season where the drive-train performance will matter a lot more than it does right now.

(Combination of posts from different F1 forums)

Edited by Viva Alonso

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vlagman    988

 

Redbull have always struggled with their Webber's KERS and this could be an issue for them Ricciardo as well next year and give other teams an advantage. It’s widely accepted that Renault has the best engine.

 

Fixed. Now let me get my riot gear and run. :36_11_6: :36_11_6: :36_11_6:

Edited by vlagman

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Hawk_Eye    1,453

New turbo engines:  Renault way back in 1976 - 8 was already a master with turbo engines helped by Jean-Pierre Jabouille who helped develop the awsome turbo engines

 

Way back in 1983, 86, 88 (when some of you delinquents were still babies) Nelson Piquet stormed around a track with a Williams Honda Turbo F1 trying to keep up was the great Ayerton Senna in a Lotus with a Renault powered turbo....and somewhere there was Prost in a yellow Renault...

 

Now, excuse me if I am wondering if we are not reversing here a bit, going back to old technology?   Yes, I know lots have changed and there are new electronics and turbo lag is all but something of the past and, and and..

 

Is it not time for F1 to cut the ice with new hybrid engines, where half the race is run on fuel and the other half on electric power..  Think of the fun it will bring.

 

 

OK Vlag, now it is my turn to don the riot gear and your turn to insult me...  :36_11_6:

 

 

 


Really?  :)

 

 

 

Yes, really..

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vlagman    988

This is a whole new ball game, TBH. There is a new player in the game, called KERS. And Kers has another cousins who also like to chuck in a spanner or two. His name is Aerodynamics.

 

The thing is this. The turbo brings in it's own new set of requirements of cooling which has to be "married" with the new set of requirements as far as aerodynamics are concerned.

 

As for as the hybrid engine thing is concerned, I think it will still take some time to get to that. Remember that the new Formula E is coming in soon, which is totally electric, and even that will be tame compared to combustion engines. I also do not see full hybrid engines in F1 any time soon.I am starting to doubts if it would ever become a reality in motor racing. Yes, I know that one should never say never.

 

Thing is that the need for cars with massive performance are getting less end less. The car manufacturers do  make them and people do buy them, but is there really a place for them. So what if your Beemer M3 can do 250kph? Where are you going to use it and when? It is only in the USA and probably SA and Aus where there are wide open spaces with with miles and miles of open road. In Europe (excluding of course the autobahn and the likes), for, instance it is stupid to buy an M5, as opposed to a 530D BMW. Even on the three lane motorways you hardly have the opportunity to exceed the speed limit, let alone drive at 100mph. The motorways are just to crowded and  when you go onto dual carriage ways and dual way roads there is just no way that you can travel at those speeds. So the optimum, IMO, if you have money to splash then go for a car that has all the comfort and luxury and has enough power and torque for you to drive at or around the speed limit uphill and downhill.

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

Inside the 2014 Renault F1 engine with

 

Detailed analysis on how a 2014 Power unit works all in 3D animation -Fantastic insight and a very detailed analysis

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4vIjJg0lXgc

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vlagman    988

I have been meaning to say  this from when you posted the first You Tube clip about how the new engine was going to work. If you look at how all of this fits in and works, it makes me think about an discussion some time back about F1 v Le Mans. There was an argument, at that stage, that Le Mans is more interesting because there is much more innovation in  Le Mans, with specific reference to the Delta Wing, etc. It was said that you do not see this kind of innovation in F1. Now excuse me, but what is this then? Is this not something that will definitely feature, and is already featuring in a way in normal road cars? Yes, you do already have hybrid engines and BMW, amongst others, has quite a numbers of models some kind of energy recovery but at this level? If this works well in F1, there is no doubt that it will be in road cars in the near future.

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

No-one is saying it wont be in future road cars ... in my opinion it will be in the very near future.

 

The argument AFAIK was more about F1 being so restricted in what they can develop on the cars with the engine freeze etc.. it tied in with the argument about F1 becoming to much Aero driven instead of engine and other technologies.

 

What has changed on the engines since 2007? Nothing

 

The only reason there could be some nice new developments this year is because the rules have changed a lot... but even that is limited to some extend.

 

The new engine regulations for 2014 have been designed to discourage teams from producing “extreme engines” and employing “exotic strategies”, according to the FIA.

F1′s governing body intends to make energy efficiency a priority for the teams in designing their new cars and engines and will limit each driver to using no more then 100kg of fuel per race nextarrow-10x10.png year.

But, as FIA head of powertrain Fabrice Lom explained to its magazine Auto, the rules go further than that to prevent teams coming up with unusual attempts to get around the rules:

“Giving the same amount of fuel to each car is an easy way of promoting efficiency – but the requirement is not as simple as that.” said Lom. “With no other limitations we might see some extreme and dangerous powerful engines, coupled with exotic strategies.”

“The fuel-flow limitation is there to stop this, enforcing a certain level of control. I say ‘a certain level’ because the engineers working on this project have an infinite amount of ingenuity, and over time the will certainly develop more efficient engines with greater power output.”

 

Starting next year already a certain % of the engine will be "Frozen" from further development and the next year more etc .... ending in a total freeze and  we wont have any new developments  .... well not anything of real interest till there is another massive rules change again.

 

I understand why they freezing engine development etc... cost cost cost .... but I would have loved to see teams being able to develop engines and ERS constantly .... but that will never again ahppen in F1 .... same as unrestricted testing.

 

Edit

Here is some more on it.

 

The process of levelling the performance among the manufacturers - Ferrari, Renault and Mercedes (plus Honda in 2015) - will be conducted alongside a staged freeze of power unit technology from 2014 to 2020. Since 2007 Formula One has been operating under 'frozen' engine specifications to keep costs down, and while there is a similar plan for the V6 turbos and their Energy Recovery Systems, getting to a point where the relative competitiveness of engines is as close as it is now could be contentious.

The stages of the freeze are mapped out in the 2014 regulations, with certain parts of the engine set from 2014, 8% of the power unit frozen by 2015, 23% by 2016, 35% by 2018 and 95% by 2019.

"There will be a phased homologation [of the engines]," Whitmarsh explained. "So there will be certain things that you can't change from the outset and then at the end of the first year there will be more things you can change than in the second year, it's a sort of phasing towards homologation."

.......................

 

Have a look at this link .... the guy is standing with the engine in his hands its taht small!!

http://www.racer.com/nissan-reveals-revolutionary-gasoline-engine-to-complement-zeos-rc-electric-powerplant/article/331112/

 

Nissan will not only break new ground with the unique electric powerplant aboard its Nissan ZEOD RC at Le Mans this year, but the accompanying internal combustion engine is "set to revolutionize standards of performance and efficiency," the company said in its official debut of the latter in London on Monday.

The Nissan ZEOD RC will become the first entryarrow-10x10.png at Le Mans to completearrow-10x10.png a lap of the Circuit de la Sarthe under nothing but electric power in June. A single lap of each stint (a fuel “stint” lasts approximately one hour) will be electric powered, then the new Nissan DIG-T R 1.5 liter three-cylinder turbo engine will take over.

The incredibly small engine weighs only 40 kilograms (88 pounds) but produces an astonishing 400 horsepower. The base engine is only 500mm tall x 400mm long x 200mm wide (19.68” x 15.74” x 7.78”). While the engine is technically too heavy to take as carry-on luggage on a plane – it would easily fit inside the luggage guides seen at major airports around the world.

Edited by Viva Alonso

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso
Up Close and Personal with the Formula One Power Unit

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HETsUIcRLGo

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

Martin Brundle explains the particularly clever technology that provides the Mercedes W05 Formula 1 car with such a clear advantage this year.

The British broadcaster revealed last week that Mercedes had designed and manufactured a split turbocharger. The turbine and the compressor now sit at both extremities of the V6.

Brundle, a former F1 driver himself, explains why such a modification produces so many advantages.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=NuBB2F6IutQ

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Guest Viva Alonso   
Guest Viva Alonso

The secret to Mercs dominance ...... Honda will know all of this by now....

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuBB2F6IutQ

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anLDCVD6v1s

Edited by Viva Alonso

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